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 مقارنة بين التقويم الذاتي والتقويم المهني المقنن لأداء مدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية في المدارس الإعدادية في العراق،

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تاريخ التسجيل : 11/03/2011

مُساهمةموضوع: مقارنة بين التقويم الذاتي والتقويم المهني المقنن لأداء مدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية في المدارس الإعدادية في العراق،    الجمعة مارس 11, 2011 6:42 pm

مقارنة بين التقويم الذاتي والتقويم المهني المقنن لأداء مدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية في المدارس الإعدادية في العراق، أصفياء صبيح شلش، عرض وتوثيق رسالة ماجستير غير منشورة.


A COMPARISON BETWEEN TEACHER SELF-EVALUATION AND STANDARDIZED PROFESSIONAL EVALUATION OF PREPARATORY SCHOOL EFL TEACHERS' PERFORMANCE IN IRAQ, ASFIYA SABIH SHALASH






المقدمة
Problem of the Study and its Significance
Teaching is the cornerstone of any educational system. It is a professional and creative activity. Until the late 19th century, teaching was hardly a specialized profession. Teachers carry the great responsibility of educating people on their shoulders, and play the leading roles in societies (Robinett,1980:251).
In order to stress the crucial role of teachers, Kelly (1969:274) states that societies need good, well-trained teachers because of the important role they play. Teachers have to be qualified in order to perform their career better. Being good teachers plays an important role in the education of the students. When there are good teachers, there will be good learners; qualified and well-trained teachers can teach well.
Specialists and researchers in general assure that the teacher plays a vital role in any educational process for "the competence of the teacher has an important bearing on the success of instruction".
The real problem of the present study stems from the fact that teachers are usually more biased toward their own ability to teach in a very good way. In order to examine this proposition the researcher would like to conduct this research.
In language teaching, a typical teacher should be a good model for his/her students because he/she is one of the important factors in the process of teaching if not the most important of all factors. The EFL teacher is basically accountable for his/her students' achievement, so he/she must be highly qualified academically as well as professionally (Ramadhan, 1998:2).
It is intuitively obvious that effective teachers must possess a professional knowledge base and exhibit knowledge of the subject matter. Successful teachers have a vast repertoire of instructional strategies and techniques that reflect their knowledge of the subject. According to Slick (1995:2), the most skillful and knowledgeable teachers are those that consciously reflect upon, conceptualize, and apply understandings from one classroom experience to the next. Teaching requires continuous reflection and decision making before, during, and after classroom instruction (Berliner and Biddle, 1995; Colton and Spark-Langer, 1993; Costa, 1995 as cited in Peer Assistance and Review, 1998 : Int.).
The public views teacher evaluation as a major problem in the school system today. Common methods for evaluating teachers include measurement tests of teacher characteristics, student achievement test scores, and ratings of teachers' classroom performance (Barrett, 1986 : 1 ).
In addition to the standardized professional evaluation done by external evaluators, self-evaluation is also used. "It is universally acknowledged that improvement in educational systems is crucially dependent on effective teacher self-evaluation. Indeed, teachers instinctively wish to reflect on their work, evaluate it and look for ways to improve it. However, effective self-evaluation is not simply a process for the individual, but involves colleagues in a variety of ways. A fundamental principle is that teachers should also see themselves as learners" (Teacher Self-Evaluation, 1996 :Int.).
Effective and successful teachers have the ability to evaluate their own instructional effectiveness and be professionally responsible for acquiring new skills and knowledge. They also demonstrate their commitment to teaching by accepting responsibility for student learning and behaviour (Porter and Brophy, 1988, as cited in Peer Assistance and Review, 1998: Int.).
Faculty self-evaluation usually supplements more formal evaluation methods and is used with other data to identify weak areas of instruction and classroom management skills. It serves as an important source of information for staff development (Barrett,1986:3).
As noticed from interviews and contacts with specialists in the field and with people involved in the educational process, and from the findings of previous studies such as Dagher (1999), the professional performance of Iraqi EFL teachers is unsatisfactory in general. Several methods are needed to evaluate this performance, one of which is self-evaluation which is not utilized in Iraq to supplement traditional methods of evaluation. Since there is no similar study in Iraq that has tackled this kind of evaluation, to the best of the researcher's knowledge, he intends to investigate this topic and make a comparison between self-evaluation and standardized professional evaluation of preparatory school EFL teachers' performance.
1.2 Aims of the Study
The present study aims at :
1.evaluating preparatory school EFL teachers' performance using self-evaluation,
2. evaluating their performance using standardized professional evaluation, and
3. comparing their performance on both self-evaluation and standardized professional evaluation.
1.3 Hypothesis of the Study
The following hypothesis is postulated:
There is no statistically significant difference between the mean scores of self-evaluation and that of standardized professional evaluation of preparatory school EFL teachers' performance.
1.4 Limits of the Study
This study is limited to the evaluation of EFL teachers in the preparatory schools for boys and girls in Baghdad City for the academic year 2009-2010.
1.5 The Procedures of the Study
In order to achieve the aims of the study, the following procedures are adopted :
1.Selecting a representative sample of EFL teachers in the preparatory schools.
2.Designing a checklist to evaluate EFL teachers' performance.
3. Exposing the checklist to a jury of experts to ensure its validity.
4. Conducting a pilot study.
5. Applying the checklist to the study sample.
6. Using suitable statistical tools to manipulate the data and to make the intended comparisons.
7. Drawing conclusions and making recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
1.6 Definitions of Basic Terms
1.6.1 Evaluation : There are many definitions of "evaluation" which may be represented by the following definitions :
1. Evaluation is the process of ascertaining or judging the value or amount of something by use of a standard of appraisal which includes judgements in terms of internal evidence and external criteria (Good, 1973 : 209).
2. Evaluation is the process of obtaining information and using them to form judgements which in turn are to be used in decision making (TenBrick, 1974 : 20).
3. Evaluation refers to procedures which are used for gathering data on the dynamic, effectiveness, and efficiency of a language programme for the purposes of decision making (Richards and Rodgers, 1986 : 158).
4. Evaluation is the systematic gathering of information for purposes of decision making and these pieces of information which are relevant to evaluation can be either qualitative (non-measurement, e.g., observations, ratings ) or quantitative (measurement, e.g., tests ) (Mousavi, 1999 : 119).
1.6.2 Performance is the ability to achieve desired results with economy of time and effort in relation to amount of work accomplished (Good, 1973:389).
Performance is an actual accomplishment as distinguished from potential ability (Encyclopedia of Education. Vo1.6, p.514, 1974).
1.6.3 Self-evaluation is one of professional approaches which enables a mature teacher to improve his/her performance and teaching behaviour inside his/her classroom (Pfeiffer and Dunlap, 1982 : 164).
Self-evaluation is a powerful method which can be used for changing behaviour and improving instruction (DeRoche, 1981 : 148).
1.6.4 Preparatory schools are the schools that comprise the classes from the tenth to the twelfth of general education in Iraq.
The operational definitions :
1.6.5 Standardized evaluation means the evaluation of a teacher performance as it used by the directorates of supervision at the general directorate of education after being modified and exposed to a jury of specialists in education and language teaching.
1.6.6 Professional evaluation is the evaluation which is associated with the profession of being a good teacher or good teaching.
1.6.7 Standardization is a set of uniform procedures which are used to establish a particular evaluation and its implementation to get interpretation for its ratings (Mousavi, 1999 : 366).
الملخص
ABSTRACT
Evaluation is an important part of any work. Therefore it is conducted before, during and after any successful endeavour particularly in education to develop teachers' abilities by enabling them to be aware of their own real performance and the vital roles they play in managing their classrooms.
Teachers need to evaluate their performance continuously to free it from inadequacies and to enable them to develop skills concerning their work.
What is problematic in the present study is the fact that teachers usually have more ambitious expectations of their performance inside their classrooms than what they actually perform. Therefore, to settle this problem, this study aims at :
1.evaluating preparatory school EFL teachers' performance using self-evaluation.
2. evaluating their performance using standardized professional evaluation, and
3. comparing their performance on both self- evaluation and standardized professional evaluation.
To conduct the study, the following hypothesis is posed :
There is no statistically significant difference between the mean scores of self-evaluation and that of standardized professional evaluation of the preparatory school EFL teachers' performance.
This study is limited to the evaluation of EFL teachers in the preparatory schools for boys and girls in Baghdad City for the academic year 2009 – 2010.
In order to achieve the aims of the study, the researcher has adopted the procedures below :
1. Selecting a representative sample of teachers who are teaching English in the preparatory schools.
2. Designing a checklist to evaluate EFL teachers' performance.
3. Exposing the checklist to a jury of experts to ensure its validity.
4. Conducting a pilot study to ensure reliability of the study tool.
5. Administering the checklist to the study sample.
As a result of using suitable statistical tools mention them to manipulate the data and to make the intended comparisons, the researcher has come up with important results among which are the following :
1. The mean scores of the teachers' performance on both teacher self-evaluation and standardized professional evaluation indicate a difference which is statistically significant in favour of the teacher self-evaluation. This is due to the fact that the teachers understudy are subjective in their evaluation of their own performance.
2. The results of inter – field comparisons show that the degree of correlation between some fields of the teacher self-evaluation and standardized professional evaluation can be considered significant. These fields are : evaluation procedures, teaching techniques, and personal traits. However the correlation between the other fields is considered not significant. These fields are : lesson planning, teaching aids, linguistic component and the relationships with students.
In the light of the results of this study, the researcher has put forward some recommendations among which are :
1. The standardized evaluation checklist can be used instead of the currently used one since the former yields more information for the supervisors to make their evaluation of teachers' performance more accurate and comprehensive.
2. Colleges and institutes of education should pay great attention to instill a sense of self – evaluation in their students during the preparation courses.
The study concludes with suggestions for further studies among which are :
1. A similar study can be conducted to obtain a real picture and full information on EFL teacher's performance in Iraqi primary and intermediate schools.
2. A study can be carried out to evaluate EFL teacher's performance in the teachers' training institutes in the light of his/her students' evaluation.
تفصيل قائمة المحتويات
Contents
Subject Page No.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………….…VII
ABSTRACT……………………………………………...….VIII
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……………………..………….XI
LIST OF TABLES…………………………..………………XIV
LIST OF APPENDICES………………………..……………XV
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1Problem of the Study and its Significance………………….1
1.2Aims of the Study …………...……………………………..4
1.3Hypothesis of the Study ………………………………...….4
1.4Limits of the Study …………………...…………………....4
1.5Procedures of the Study ……………...…………………….4
1.6Definitions of Basic Terms…………..……………………..5
1.6.1 Evaluation ……………………………………………...5
1.6.2 Performance ……………………………………………6
1.6.3 Self-evaluation …………………………………………6
1.6.4 Preparatory schools …………………...……………….6
1.6.5 Standardized evaluation ……………………………….6
1.6.6 Professional evaluation ………………………………..7
1.6.7 Standardization ………………………………………..7
CHAPTER TWO: Teacher Evaluation
2.1 Teacher Evaluation …………………….…………………..8
2.1.1 Factors That Affect Teacher Evaluation……….…..….9
2.1.1.1 The Teaching Method…………………………….10
2.1.1.2 Error Treatment ………………………………….10
2.1.1.3 The Evaluator's Judgment ………………...….…..11
2.2 Importance of Teacher Evaluation ….………….…………11
2.2.1 Purposes of Teacher Evaluation ……………....…12
2.2.2 Principles of Teacher Evaluation………………...13
2.2.3 Required Competencies ………………………....14
2.3 Teacher Self-Evaluation ………………………………….18
2.3.1 Views Concerning Teacher self-Evaluation ……...…..19
2.3.2 Aims of Teacher Self-Evaluation………………….….20
2.4 Professional Evaluation ……………………………..……21
2.4.1 Definitions of Autonomy…………………………...…21
2.4.2 Autonomy vs. Authority………………………………22
2.4.2.1 Autonomy within Organizations ……………...…..22
2.4.2.2 Autonomy, Supervision, and Power…………..…..23
2.5 Supervision Department Checklist vs.
Standardized Checklist ………………………..………….24
2.5.1 The Scale of Evaluation…………………….………….28
2.5.2 Number of Items……………………….………………28
2.5.3 The Three General Stages of Teaching………………..29
CHAPTER THREE: Procedures
3.1 An Introductory Note………………………...……………30
3.2 Population and Sample …………………………….……..30
3.3 The Study Tool (The Checklist)…………………………..31
3.3.1 Validity ……………………………………...………..31
3.3.2 Reliability …………………………………………….34
3.4 Final Administration ……………………………….……..35
3.5 Statistical Means ………………………………………….35
CHAPTER FOUR: Results Discussion
4.1 Introductory Notes………………………………...………37
4.2 The Quantitative Results…………………………………..38
4.2.1 Inter – Task Comparison …………………………..…38
4.2.2 Inter – Field Comparisons………………………….…39
4.3 The Qualitative Results………………………………...….40
4.3.1 The Difference in Correlation of Teachers' Performance
on TSE and SPE……………………….………...…….40
4.3.2 The Difference in Performance of Item Type on
TSE and SPE..…………...……...…………………..…..41
4.3.3 The Relationship between the Teachers' Performance on the Various Fields…….......…......…………………....42
CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusions, Recommendations and Suggestions
5.1 Conclusions…………………………………………..……43
5.2 Recommendations ……………………………..………….44
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies………………………..….45


Bibliography ………………………………………………….46


Appendices ………………………...…………………………51


Abstract In Arabic……………………………………………1
الاستنتاجات
Conclusions
As a result of investigating the teachers' performance under this study on both TSE and SPE tasks, the following conclusions can be drawn :
1. Though there is a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of teachers' performance on TSE and SPE, there is an acceptable level of relationship between the two types of evaluation. This is due to the fact that Iraqi teachers of English are aware of their own performance.
2.Teachers have more expectation concerning their performance on T.T. field than what they actually perform inside their classrooms and this is perhaps due to their inadequate preparation academically.
3. Teachers have also an element of subjectivity on T.A. field since it has least agreement on TSE and SPE this is perhaps affected by the type of skills.
4. Teachers have more subjectivity on L.P. field since it has least agreement on TSE and SPE. This is perhaps due to their lack of experience. Teachers with long experience of ELT are told by supervisors not to pay too much attention to write detailed lesson plans.
5. Subjectivity can also be observed on R.S. field and this is perhaps due to their personal traits.
التوصيات
Recommendations
In the light of the discussion of the previous section and in reference to the aims of this study, the researcher recommends the following:
1. The use of the standardized evaluation checklist is recommended instead of the currently used one since the former yields more information for the supervisors to make their evaluation of teachers' performance more accurate and comprehensive and to help teachers to improve the effectiveness of their teaching.
2. Teachers should be quite aware of their performance so as to give sound and accurate judgments on what they do.
3. This study can be utilized in the domain of Ministry of Education in order to guide for interest in self-evaluation as a modern style which enables teachers to monitor their performance inside their classrooms.
4. Modern means of communication, e.g. the internet can be used as a tool for teachers' self-development.
5. Colleges and institutes of education should pay great attention to instill a sense of self-evaluation in their students.
مقترحات
Suggestions for Further Studies
The following suggestions may be suitable for further investigations :
1. A similar study can be conducted to obtain a real picture and full information on EFL teacher's performance in Iraqi primary and intermediate schools.
2. A similar study can be carried out to evaluate instructors' performance of universities and institutes.
3. A study can be carried out to evaluate EFL teacher's performance in the Teachers' Training Institutes in the light of his/her students' evaluation.
تفصيل قائمة المصادر
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المستخلص باللغة العربية
التقويم جزء مهم لأيّ عمل لذلك ينظم قبل وأثناء وبعد أيّ محاولة ناجحة، وبالأخص في التعليم لتطوير قابليات المدرسين بتمكينهم من ادراك أدائهم الحقيقي والادوار المهمة التي يقومون بها لإدارة صفوفهم.
ويحتاج المدرسون لتقويم ادائهم باستمرار لتخليصه من النقوص من اجل تطوير المهارات المختلفة التي تخص عملهم.
والمشكلة في هذه الدراسة حقيقة ً أن المدرسين لديهم توقعات أكثر طموحا ً عن أدائهم داخل صفوفهم من أدائهم الحقيقي، ولحل هذهِ المشكلة فأن الدراسة تهدف إلى: 1. تقويم أداء مُدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية في المدارس الاعدادية باستعمال التقويم الذاتي، 2. تقويم أدائهم باستعمال التقويم المهني المقنن، 3. مقارنة أدائهم في كلا التقويمين الذاتي والمهني المقنن.
لإنجاز هذهِ الدراسة نفترض التالي: ليس هناك فرق دال إحصائيا ً بين متوسط درجات التقويم الذاتي والتقويم المهني المقنن لأداء مُدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية في المدارس الاعدادية.
أن هذهِ الدراسة محددة بتقويم مدرسي اللغة الأنكليزية في المدارس الأعدادية للبنين والبنات في مدينة بغداد للسنة الدراسية 2009- 2010م.
من أجل تحقيق أهداف هذه الدراسة, تبنى الباحث الإجراءات الآتية:
1. اختيار عينه ممثله للمدرسين الذين يدرسون اللغة الانكليزية في المدارس الاعدادية وقد أختار الباحث عينة بصورة عشوائية من (34) مدرسة. العدد الكلي للعينة هو (72) مدرسا ً ومدّرسة.
2. تصميم استمارة ملاحظة لتقويم اداء مدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية.
3. عرض استمارة الملاحظة على هيئة من الخبراء لضمان مصداقيتها.
4. تنظيم دراسة استطلاعية لضمان ثبات أداة البحث.
5. تطبيق الأداة على عينة الدراسة.
ونتيجة لاستعمال الوسائل الإحصائية المناسبة لمعالجة البيانات ولعمل المقارنات المطلوبة، توصل الباحث إلى نتائج مهمة من بينها مايلي :
1. يشير المعدل الحسابي لدرجات أداء المُدرسين في التقويمين الذاتي والمهني المقنن إلى وجود فرق دال إحصائياً ولصالح التقويم الذاتي للمدرس. ويرجع هذا إلى أن المدرسين في هذه ِ الدراسة كانوا غير موضوعيين في تقويمهم لادائهم.
2. أظهرت نتائج مقارنات مجالات التقويم وجود ارتباط واضح بين بعض حقول التقويم. والحقول هي: أجراءات التقويم المتبعة، الأساليب التعليمية والسمات الشخصية بينما يكون الأرتباط بين الحقول الأخرى غير ملحوظ. وهذه الحقول هي : خطة الدرس والوسائل التعليمية والكفاءة اللغوية والعلاقة مع التلاميذ.
في ضوء نتائج هذه ِ الدراسة قدّم الباحث بعض التوصيات منها:
1. استعمال استمارة التقويم المهني المقنن بدلا ً من الاستمارة المستعملة حاليا ً لأن الاستمارة الحالية احتوت على معلومات أوفر للمشرفين لجعل تقويمهم لاداء المدرسين أكثر دقة وشمولية.
2. يجب أن تولي كليات ومعاهد التعليم اهتماماً كبيراً لغرس أحساس التقويم الذاتي في تلاميذهم.
وختمت الدراسة باقتراحات لدراسات مستقبلية منها:
1. دراسة مشابهة يمكن أن تنظم للحصول على صورة واقعية ومعلومات كاملة عن أداء مُدرسي اللغة الانكليزية في المدارس المتوسطة والابتدائية في العراق.
2. دراسة يمكن أن تنفذ لتقويم أداء مُدرسي اللغة الانكليزية في معاهد إعداد المعلمين في ضوء تقويم طلابهم لهم.
Graduation and documentation of the message
A COMPARISON BETWEEN TEACHER SELF-EVALUATION AND STANDARDIZED PROFESSIONAL EVALUATION OF PREPARATORY SCHOOL EFL TEACHERS' PERFORMANCE IN IRAQ
A Thesis
Submitted to the Council of the College of Basic
Education / Al-Mustansiriyah University in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for M.A. Degree in Education (Methods of Teaching English as a Foreign Language)

By
ASFIYA SABIH SHALASH
SUPERVISED By
Asst. Prof. Abdul-Jabbar Ali Darwesh, Ph.D
September, 2010 Shawal, 1431
تخريج وتوثيق الرسالة

مقارنة بين التقويم الذاتي والتقويم المهني المقنن لأداء مدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية في المدارس الإعدادية في العراق، رسالة ماجستير تقدم بها: أصفياء صبيح شلش، الى مجلس كلية التربية الأساسية، الجامعة المستنصرية جزءً من متطلبات نيل درجة الماجستير آداب في التربية (طرائق تدريس اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية)، إشراف: الأستاذ المساعد الدكتور عبد الجبار علي دروش، 1431 هـ بغداد 2010م، عرض وتوثيق رسالة ماجستير غير منشورة.


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Display and electronic media and scientific exchange Bibliography Araque
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مقارنة بين التقويم الذاتي والتقويم المهني المقنن لأداء مدرسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية في المدارس الإعدادية في العراق،
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